Structural validity of the physical fitness test battery

Keywords: validity, physical fitness, confirmatory factor analysis, military personnel.

Abstract

Purpose: of the study was to examine the validity of the Army Combat Fitness Test tests on a sample of air defense personnel in the Ukrainian Ground Forces.

Material and methods. The respondents to this study were 271 air defense servicemen of the ground forces aged 18 to 40 years (73 cadets of the Ivan Kozhedub Kharkiv National Air Force University and 198 military personnel). The structural validity was evaluated using a confirmatory factor analysis.

Results. Compliance was achieved with the two-factor model obtained in the course of exploratory factor analysis, as evidenced by the following indixes: χ2 (8, Critical N = 465.29) = 10.43; χ2 / df = 1.303; Non-Normed Fit Index = 0.98; Normed Fit Index  = 0.97; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.035 (90 Percent Confidence Interval for Root Mean Square Error of Approximation  = (0.0; 0.088), Comparative Fit Index = 0.99. In addition, all factor loadings were statistically significant at the p < 0.01 level, that indicates that these two factors were well designed at every stage. Correlation between factors was weak, which confirms the discriminant validity of the test. The significant correlation found between the items and the overall test score confirmed the validity of the test.

Conclusions. It was found that Army Combat Fitness Test is a suitable tool for evaluating the physical fitness condition of air defense personnel into the Ground Forces. The dilemmas about the possible use of Army Combat Fitness Test for all age groups of military personnel regardless of gender require further study.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

S. Palevych, Ivan Kozhedub Kharkiv National Air Force University

junpolpsv@gmail.com

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8304-1857

Ivan Kozhedub Kharkiv National Air Force University,

61023, Kharkov-23, Sumskaya Street 77/79.

V. Kirpenko, Ivan Kozhedub Kharkiv National Air Force University

vital1973fp@gmail.com

http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3682-7352

Ivan Kozhedub Kharkiv National Air Force University,

61023, Kharkov-23, Sumskaya Street 77/79.

Ivan Kozhedub Kharkiv National University of the Air Force

Sumskaiy str. 77/79, Kharkiv, 61023, Ukraine

ів, 61023. Україна.

A. Piddubny, Ivan Kozhedub Kharkiv National Air Force University

poddubnyag@gmail.com

https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0957-2788

Ivan Kozhedub Kharkiv National Air Force University,

61023, Kharkov-23, Sumskaya Street 77/79.

S. Bozhko, Kyiv Professional College of Tourism and Hospitality Kyiv, street General Zhmachenko, 26, Kyiv 02192, Ukraine

B_serg6309@ukr.net

https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0268-5552

 

Kyiv Professional College of Tourism and Hospitality Kyiv, street General Zhmachenko, 26, Kyiv 02192, Ukraine

Z. Tzymbaliyk, Ivan Kozhedub Kharkiv National Air Force University

zhanna.tzymbaliuk@gmail.com

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9129-5689

Ivan Kozhedub Kharkiv National Air Force University,

61023, Kharkov-23, Sumskaya Street 77/79.

Michael Anthonny Martinez Velez, Unidad Educativa Naval “Comandante Cesar Endara Penaherrera”

mamartinezv25@gmail.com

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6239-4269

Unidad Educativa Naval “Comandante Cesar Endara Penaherrera” Liceo Naval, QF3H + MHW, Quito 170111, Ecuador

Federico Anibal Martinez Velez

mfederico_anibalv@hotmail.com

https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3315-2118

Comando de educacion y doctrina del Ejercito Ecuatoriano

Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru

Jorge Armando Moreta Vinueza, Logistical support command No. 17 "Pastaza", Ecuador

moretav97@hotmail.com

https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2075-075X

Currently Second Commander of the logistical support command No. 17 "Pastaza", Ecuador

Federico Antonio Martinez Leon, Instituto de Altos Estudios Nacionales (IAEN), Ecuador

fmartinezl76@hotmail.com

https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0597-0519

Instituto de Altos Estudios Nacionales (IAEN), Ecuador 

References

Batchelor J. Applicability of the army physical fitness test in the contemporary operating environment. Kansas, 2019.

Palevy`ch SV, Piddubny`j OG, Tkachuk OA, Zolochevs`ky`j VV. The state of the problem and directions for improving the special physical training of servicemen of the Air Force of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. Sporty`vna nauka Ukrayiny`, 2018;1(83):15-25. (in Ukrainian) Available from: snu.ldufk.edu.ua

Provisional Guidelines for Physical Training in the Armed Forces of Ukraine (TNFP-2014). Ky`yiv, 2014:160.

Bompa TO, Haff GG. Periodization: Theory and methodology of training. [5-th Edition]. Champaign, IL, USA: Human Kinetics, 2009.

Daniel P. Armstrong, Kathryn E. Sinden, Jonathan Sendsen, Renée S. MacPhee, Steven L. Fischer. The Ottawa Paramedic Physical Ability Test: test-retest reliability and analysis of sex-based performance differences. Ergonomics, 2019;62:8,1033-1042. DOI: 10.1080/00140139.2019.1618501

Department of Defense Joint Technical Coordinating Group. Summary Report: Research Workshop on Physical Fitness Standards and Measurements within Military Services; August 31 to 2 September. Herndon (VA): Department of Defense, 1999:3-9.

Knapik JJ, East WB. History of the United States army physical fitness and physical readiness testing. US Army Med Dep J, 2014:5-19.

U.S. Army Public Health Command (USAPHC). Public Health Report No. 12-01-0614. Prepared by Jones BH, Nindl B, Hauret K, et al. Development of a New Army Standardized Physical Readiness Test: 2012 through 2013. Aberdeen Proving Ground (MD): USAPHC, 2015:1–8

Hauschild VD, DeGroot D, Hall S, et al. Correlations Between Physical Fitness Tests and Performance of Military Tasks: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses. Aberdeen Proving Ground (MD): USAPHC, 2014. Available from DTIC: http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA607688 Proving Ground (MD): USAPHC, 2015:1-8.

US Army Public Health Command. Public Health Report No. 12-02-0614. Correlations Between Physical Fitness Tests and Performance of Military Tasks: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses. Prepared by Hauschild VD, DeGroot D, Hall S, et al. Aberdeen Proving Ground (MD): USAPHC, 2014. Available from DTIC: http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA607688

ARMY COMBAT FITNESS TEST 3.0: Exploring a more inclusive scoring assessment, planks stay [quoted 20.04.2021]. Available from: https://www.army.mil/acft/#overview

Appendix 2 to Annex A, HQDA EXORD 219-18 [quoted 25.05.2020]. Available from: https://www.army.mil/e2/downloads/rv7/acft/acft_grader_validation.pdf

Norwegian Armed Forces. Physical requirements for education and service in the Armed Forces, 2020. Available from: https://forsvaret.no/fysiskekrav

Memberservices [quoted 24.09.2020]. Available from: https://www.stripes.com/theaters/us/army-approves-fitness-test-exception-for

Nasledov AD. Mathematical methods of psychological research. Data analysis and interpretation. SPb, Rech`, 2012;392. (in Russian)

General Accounting Office. Gender issues: improved guidance and oversight are needed to ensure validity and equity of fitness standards. Washington (DC): Subcommittee on Readiness, Committee on Armed Services, 1998:4-6, 27, 29.

Jöreskog K, Sörbom D. LISREL 8.8 for Windows. Scientific Software International, Inc.; Skokie, IL, USA: 2006. [Google Scholar]

British Army (n.d.). A quick guide to the new fitness tests. Available from: https://apply.army.mod.uk/how-to-join/can-ijoin/fitness/physical-entry-standards

Bundeswehr (n.d.). The basic fitness test. Available from: https://www.bundeswehrkarriere.de/dierekruten/infos/basis-fitnesstest

Singapore Ministry of Defense. Pre-enlistee IPPT and BMI, 2018. Available from: https://www.cmpb.gov.sg/web/portal/cmpb/home/before-ns/pre-enlistment-process/pre-enlistee-ippt-and-bmi

Vanderburgh PM. Occupational relevance and body mass bias in military physical fitness tests. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2008;40(8):1538-45.

Whitehead PN, Schilling BK, Peterson DD, Weiss LW. Possible new modalities for the Navy physical readiness test. Military Medicine. 2012;177(11):1417-25.

Gary L, Boykin Sr, Valerie J, Rice. Physical Readiness is More Than Physical Fitness: Relationships Between Army Physical Fitness Test Scores and Self-reports of Physical and Psychological Fitness, 2020:83-176. https://DOI:10.1007/978-3-030-20037-4_16.

The Washington post [quoted 02.02.2020]. Available from: https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/army-fitness-test-women/2020/09/24/20ed51e2-e244-11ea-ade1-28daf1a5e919_story.html

Pihlainen K, Vaara J, Ojanen T, Santtila M, Vasankari T, Tokola K, et al. Effects of Baseline Fitness and BMI Levels on Changes in Physical Fitness During Military Service. J Sci Med Sport, 2020;23:1-5.

Webber BJ, Ruiz SA, Talcott GW, Little MA, Tate DF. Weight Gain of Service Members After Basic Military Training. Am J Prev Med, 2020;58(1):117-21.

Matos DG, Silva Salgueiro R, Mazini Filho ML, Rodrigues BM, Aidar FJ, de Lima JRP. Profile evolution of the aerobic conditioning and the strength in military police. Rev Atenção Saúde, 2011;8(25):14-20.

Technology Institute. Iowa City [quoted 30.06.2020]. Available from: https://iti.uiowa.edu/army-combat-fitness-test

Vanderburgh PM, Flanagan S. The backpack run test: a model for a fair and occupationally relevant military fitness test. Mil Med, 2000;165(5):418-21. PMID: 10826392.

Volovny`k VYe. Improving diagnostic tools for the level of training of military specialists. Naukovy`j visny`k PDPU im. K.D. Ushy`ns`kogo, 2000;11:7-91. (in Ukrainian)

Ross R Vickers Jr. Construct Validity of Physical Fitness Tests Naval Health Research Center Warfighter Performance Department, 2007.

Hogan J. Structure of physical performance in occupational tasks. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1991;76(4): 495-507. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.76.4.495

Nicks DC, Fleishman EA. What do Physical Fitness Tests Measure?—A Review of Factor Analytic Studies. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1962;22(1):77-95. doi:10.1177/001316446202200109

Diego CA: Naval Health Research Center. Available from: https://federallabs.org/labs/naval-health-research-center-nhrc

Vickers RR., Jr, Hodgdon JA., Beckett MB. Physical ability-task Performance models: Assessing the risk of omitted variable bias (Report No. pp.09- 04). San Diego, CA: Naval Health Research Center, 2009.

Published
2021-12-25
How to Cite
Palevych, S., Kirpenko, V., Piddubny, A., Bozhko, S., Tzymbaliyk, Z., Anthonny Martinez Velez, M., Anibal Martinez Velez, F., Armando Moreta Vinueza, J., & Antonio Martinez Leon, F. (2021). Structural validity of the physical fitness test battery. Health, Sport, Rehabilitation, 7(4), 84-97. https://doi.org/10.34142/HSR.2021.07.04.07
Section
Original articles. Physical education